Saturday, March 14, 2020
Ethical Research Conduct Introduction A research must have a researcher, research tools, participants and an audience. This paper explores various ethical considerations that must be followed when seeking consents from participants.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical Research Conduct specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Philosophical and Historical Background Consent is a permission given to researchers to involve participants in a research process. This consent may be written or verbal depending on the nature of the study and the relation between the participant and researcher (Kim 2009). Philosophers believed that research consent is essential in all research involving human beings since it makes all parties concerned to be aware of the processes involved in the study. This is based on previous attempts to conduct research without the consent of participants which led to complications (withdrawal of participants, insufficient cooperation and hostility) during the study (Comstock 2013). These challenges necessitated the need to develop ways of ensuring participants obey the agreement signed before the study started. Therefore, participants were compelled to play their roles until when the process is completed. Ethical Issues in Articles 3.1-3.5 Article 3.1 explains that researchers must seek the participation of other people in the research by requesting them to be involved. This means that the researcher must not use force, manipulation, propaganda or gifts to persuade participants to agree to take part in the research (Comstock 2013). Most research processes take a lot of time and this may force participants to withdraw from the process. This has serious effects on the outcomes of the research if the participant is forced to sit through the whole process. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain voluntary consent from the participant before commencing with the research. Participants that volunteer to participate in res earch usually provide credible information in terms of accuracy and reliability. However, when a participant is forced to take part in a study the person may offer false information which will affect the research (Kim 2009). However, this act should be amended to give the researcher the ability to determine the level of volunteerism and also use incentives to ensure sensitive information is collected from the participants. Gifts can play important roles in influencing the response from participants.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This article also states that consent can be cancelled and the participants to terminate their participation and withdraw their contributions in the research at anytime. This provision identifies the possibility of having various challenges that may interfere with the ability of the participant to provide useful information to the researcher. Issues l ike diseases and attitude are not easily predictable and may occur when the research is at a crucial stage. Consequently, the researcher cannot insist that the participant must continue taking part in the research since this will be dictatorship. However, these acts should be amended to ensure participants withdraw from the research only when there is an inevitable and logical reason. Article 3.2 demands that researchers should provide all information to participants to enable them to make informed choices regarding their participation in the research. This is an ethical consideration that ensures participants are aware of what is expected of them and thus they prepare physically and psychologically for the future events regarding the research. It is important for the participants to know what the research will involve, its aims and objectives and the period the research is expected to take. This ensures the research does not interfere with other personal programmes. Article 3.3 adv ocates for the need to maintain consent throughout the study and provide participants the data relevant to the ongoing project and consent. This part plays significant roles in ensuring participants are aware of their roles in the research. In addition, it guides the researcher in maintaining essential contact with participants (Shamoo 2009). New research issues cannot be raised during the research process if they were not included in the initial stage. Therefore, this contact ensures the researcher and participants maintain the focus of the research by working within the terms and conditions agreed by both parties (Comstock 2013). However, this article should be amended to include unforeseen eventualities that may force the researcher to adjust terms of engagement. Article 3.4 highlights the need to notify the participant of any incidental events or findings that may be discovered during the study. This issue must be addressed properly to avoid raising suspicions regarding the term s of engagement agreed earlier (Kim 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical Research Conduct specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the researcher must conduct an elaborate review to minimise the possibilities of discovering any material or issue during the research. The presence of many discoveries during the research exposes the researcher and participants to tensions and this interferes with the outcomes of the research. Article 3.5 states that the research cannot begin unless the researcher obtains consent from the participants or their third parties. This means that the above processes must be exhausted before the study commences (Macrina 2012). This provision ensures the researcher and participants reach an agreement before they get down to work. However, this article should specify the time required to reach an agreement between the researcher and participants to avoid wasting time in unnecessary ne gotiations. Conclusion Research is a complicated activity that requires proper planning and implementation of various procedures. A research is as good as the methods and approaches employed in collecting information, analysing and presenting it. A good research can be distorted by poor recording or presentation of the data collected. In addition, a poor research cannot attain its goals no matter how well the results have been recorded or presented. Therefore, there must be logical agreements between the researcher and participants to ensure the research achieves its goals. References Comstock, G. (2013). Research Ethics: A Philosophical Guide to the ResponsibleÃ Conduct of Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kim, S. H. (2009). Evaluation of Capacity to Consent to Treatment and Research: Best Practices in Forensic Mental Health Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Macrina, F. L. (2012). Scientific Integrity: Text and Cases in Responsible Conduct ofÃ Research. New York: ASM Press. Shamoo, A.E. (2009). Responsible Conduct of Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Judaism 1 - Essay Example This statement fits a theological statement since logic and theology clash with each other. This statement is inclined towards faith rather than a legal statement. The second key element commandment is to learn Torah and to teach it to others. No doubt, Torah is a vital book in Judaism as it tells Jews about past events. For Jews, there is no Ã¢â¬Å"old testament,Ã¢â¬ as the New Testament is no part of Jewish scripture. With any sacred text, interpretations vary as Jews from traditional to modern. For instance, the concept of interest, can very amongst scholars on what interest really is defined as. Is it consider to be interest to charge money on money or making a profit through a product? This is again is a theological statement since Torah is a sacred text that is not considered as law or implemented as law. It is not an educational context text per se, but is regarded highly in Judaism as a sacred and the only true text. Hence, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a theological statement and not a mor al or a logical statement. Another key component that is part of 613 Commandments is being keen in prayers. For observant Jews, prayer is vital in their religion. Prayers should be done with right intention, clarity and observance. The law means that a Jew who is keen in his prayers will reach salvation in my opinion. The law means that Jews to acknowledge the bounties of God, must be engaged in his remembrance.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Fieldler's Contingency Theory - Research Paper Example This scale measures the leadership style of an individual by taking into consideration the opinion of the persons that have been able to work the least well with the subject. The theory might seem a bit odd since one would think that the opinion of the person that you had trouble with would not be such an important factor. The theory can be used to differentiate between relationship motivated styles and task motivated leaders. There are three situational control variables that must be considered. The three situational control variables are leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. The Fieldler contingency theory can be used in the workplace to improve the performance of the workers by using the best leadership style based on the circumstances. Take for example a project manager leading a group of workers. The workers the project manager was given were a group of recently recruited employees. They lack a lot of experience at the work tasks and have little knowledge of the corporate culture of the firm. Based on this scenario it would be more effective for the project manager to use a task orientated leadership style. The project manager should pay close attention to each member of the crew to make sure that the workers understand what is expected of them. The project manager should establish good communications and relations with the workers to build a bond of trust. In the future once I reach a position where I have to exert leadership to manage a group of people I plan on using FielderÃ¢â¬â¢s contingency theory to my advantage. If I was faced with leading a group of workers that had lots of experience, good interpersonal relations among themselves and with the boss, understanding of the culture of the firm and clear knowledge of what is expected of them I would use a relationship-motivated leadership style. A company that has utilized Fielder contingency theory to improve the performance of its workers is Sears Roebuck. Contingency theory has tremendous utility because it can be applied in a wide variety of industries. The theory allows the leader to adapt to the circumstances. The academic community has used FieldlerÃ¢â¬â¢s contingency theory in research studies to test different aspects of leadership. A study performed on 360 senior managers across 20 different British firms concluded that leadership and decision making must be analyzed form a contingency rather than a universalistic perspective (Heller, 1973). FieldlerÃ¢â¬â¢s work has evolved and recently the theory has evolved through the development of cognitive resource theory. The new cognitive approach states that that leader should use directive or nondirective behavior based on situational contingencies such as experience, support of the leader, and stress. For example when leaders have to manage a group of employees working on tight deadlines such as an accounting staff during the closing period the leader should not exert excessive pressure on the sta ff since the worker already realizes the deadlines they have to meet. Being a facilitator during these circumstances is a more effective leadership style. Contingency theories such as FieldlerÃ¢â¬â¢s direct their research towards discovering the variables that make certain leadership characteristics and behaviors effective in specific situations (Gunbayi, 2005). Contingency theory can be very effective in fast adaptive environments such as a casino operation. The casino
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Reaping What We Sow! Essay LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s measure of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences and blessings does not count to the mere fact of receiving it but, in the way how you have put on it or work hard on it. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s blessing comes intentionally when you yourselves implant what God wants and follow his will unquestionably. It has been written on Galatians 6: 9 Ã¢â¬â 10 that Ã¢â¬Å" Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Therefore, as we have the opportunity, let us do good to all people, especially to those who belong to the family of believers. Doing good to mankind is one way of our service to God. God has its own special way of intervening our inner being, yet we take hold of our own decisions and matter of facts. It has been said that Life transformations takes not an overnight snap of a finger, but a thorough process, slowly refining into an exemplar of becoming GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ambassador in reaching out the non believers.. As I have quoted in the daily wisdom, there are two methods of planting. One is sowing seeds with meticulous care, making a hole in the ground for each little seed, or broadcasting the seeds, allowing them to till and land where they will. With Either of the method, if we sow the fruits of the Holy Spirit ( Galatians 5:22 ), then that is pleasant, good results will also come within us, However, I believe if we broadcast seeds of Gods love when we live the life He has planned for us. Inasmuch, we exhibit these seed all the time- especially in our homes and workplaces. Foremost, we must always ask the Holy Spirit to live through us, so that when we broadcast our seeds- they will be fruit bearing seeds- in the eyes of God and man. Remember, our spiritual crop will be faithful to our acts. We reap what we sow, God does not say we reap only when we sow a thousand acres of evil or good, but merely that whatever we sow, in whatever amount, will take root and grow. One single seed will sprout as surely as a million acres will. It just takes an ounce of effort and dedication to do GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
George Lucas THX 1138, American Graffiti, Star Wars, The Empire Strikes BackÃ¢â¬ ¦the list goes on and on. Although many have not heard of each of these films, everyone certainly has to know the man behind them. George Lucas has, in many cases, written, produced, and directed, not to mention edit, his own films. His vision was the driving force that imagined and created these movies. All have made back the cost of the film and most have received millions of dollars in profit. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although it sounds as if he had an easy life, in reality, Lucas had to struggle in order to get ahead. Not being interested or involved in school, Lucas turned his attention to cars. When he reached driving age, his father gave him a nice, small, Ã¢â¬Å"safeÃ¢â¬ car. However, passionate about cars and racing, Lucas revved up his engine and turned it into a hot rod. Each day following, he went cruising around town, drag racing often. However, this passion led him to a drastic change in his life. It ultimately led him to success. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lucas was in a car crash in 1962, which ended his racing career before it even started. He missed his graduation ceremony at his high school, but joked that the only reason he got a diploma was because his teachers felt sorry for him. As a result, Lucas looked for other options to fill his void in life. Since his grades were not good enough for a four-year college, he decided to go to junior college. For the first time in his life, he hit the books. He fell asleep trying to earn the highest grades he could in order to have a future for himself. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During junior college, Lucas formed other interests. Instead of racing, he filmed them on an 8-millimeter camera his father gave him. An old friend, John Plummer, told George that he should apply to the University of Southern California. His friend remarked that it was not that hard to get into as reputation indicated. Lucas applied, and was accepted, for his junior year. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although the idea was unpopular with his father, Lucas was not stopped in pursing his career. At school, he realized that he had to work his but off to stay on top. He did not mind the hard work. Lucas actually felt relaxed staying up all night editing film. Even when a lot of college students got high on drugs, Ã¢â¬Å"Lucas got high on films (1, 45).
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
South Africa is a land of abundant natural resources with a mild climate, and lush fertile land. With natural resources like diamonds, gold, and platinum, itÃ¢â¬â¢s no wonder that the Dutch East India Company set up settlements on the Cape of Good Hope. These settlements established a trade port between South Africa and other countries. The 17th and 18th centuries, saw settlements popping up all over Africa. Settlers from France, England, Portugal, Belgium and Spain came, forcing the Africans from their lands and turning them into a labor force. By the 20th century the British had taken over most of the settlements in the northeast, east, west, and the center of South Africa and the French controlled most of the northwest. The Republic of South Africa has had a very turbulent 20th century. Although apartied officially started in 1948, South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s history for racial domination began much earlier. The Land Act was put into place in 1913, restricting Black African citizens from buying land outside special areas or reserves. This act also allowed for black sharecroppers, living on Ã¢â¬Å"white landÃ¢â¬ , to be relocated to these reserves. Although the Act was not enforced often, it set the stage for the Ã¢â¬Å"Black HomelandsÃ¢â¬ , which would come into play later. The National Party, a white pro-segregation party, was voted into power after WWII. They began preparing racial legislation, and in 1949, the Mixed Marriage Act became law, prohibiting whites and blacks from marrying. In 1950, the Immorality Act made it a crime for whites to have sexual relations with any other race. The Population Registration Act required all people living in South Africa to register their race. A child born from any union would immediately be registered with their race/ethnicity. Many other acts were introduced in the coming years. All were passed to seriously limit any economic, political, or educational opportunities for the black South Africans. These Apartied Acts actually resulted in the promotion of the Black Self-Government Act in 1958, and the Black Homeland Citizenship Act in 1971. The Self-Government Act established ten areas in South Africa called Homelands. These Ã¢â¬Å"HomelandsÃ¢â¬ were divided based on the tribe formally living there. All tribe members were expected to return to this land, where they would live and be governed by their own self-government. With the 1971 Citizenship Act, tribes were no longer citizens of South Africa. Instead they would be citizens of their Homelands. RESISTANCE TO APARTIED One of the first political organizations that opposed apartied was Lumumba Yama Africa; they believed that African unity was the only way to fight the white government . This party started in the 19th century, encouraging many other parties to join them in this goal. The apartied was also influenced by outside powers, such as Gandhi. These organizations instituted revolts beginning in 1960, leaving 69 dead and 190 injured. Apartied did not receive international awareness when the laws were created in 1948. With the rise of the Civil Rights movement in the United States, and the troubles in Asia and the rest of the African continent, awareness was finally brought to light to the rest of the world. In November 1977, the United Nations also became involved, by imposing arms embargos December 1977saw other sanctions. Many countries brought more awareness by not allowing South African Airway to land in their country. The South African government, because they were experiencing great economic growth, chose to show indifference to any criticisms from other organizations or countries. Because the white South Africans were prospering economically, sanctions continued to be ignored. ITÃ¢â¬â¢S OVER Apartied finally came to an end in 1990. By 1991, all apartied laws were repealed. The sanctions by other countries and organizations were also repealed. Since then, the government has been working hard to improve economic growth by creating jobs and integrating the workforce. Even though racism still exists in South Africa; cooperation between races has improved significally. REFERENCES Apartied Timeline. (n. d. ). Apartied Timeline. Retrieved from http://cyberschoolbus. un. org/discrim/race_b_at_print. asp Apartied in South Africa. (n. d. ) In Wikipedia (Rep. ). (n. d. ). Retrieved from www-cs-studentsstanford. edu/~cale/cs201/apartied. hist. html White, G. W. , ;amp; Bradshaw, M. J. (2011). Essentials of world regional geography (2nd ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Impact of the Social Work Mission in My Work and Life This assignment asks that I speak to what the NASWÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Ethics means to me and how these ideas are reflected in my daily life. I have an undergraduate degree in business and I worked as a Risk Analyst for many years at an investment firm. When I became pregnant with twins, I knew that I wanted to stay home with them and I left my job. When I left, I promised myself when I went back to work I would not be a part of corporate America. I would work somewhere where I could make a difference in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. I remember when I was about seventeen I volunteered at a homeless shelter. It was overwhelming and scary at times but extremely rewarding. There was a family I met; a dad and his two daughters. They were there because his wife had died from cancer and the medical bills became so overwhelming that they lost everything. At that moment, I realized being homeless could happen to anyone. Looking back I wish I had talked to someone at the shelter about social work and the opportunities available, I wonder how that could have shaped my life differently. I went off to college; I followed my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and studied business management. I got a job right out of college and while my parents were happy with my success, I never felt fulfilled. I was constantly searching for something that would make me feel better, to fill that void. However, I think at the time I did not realize I was doing that. Only in hindsightShow MoreRelatedMy Life Towards A Social Worker1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout my life, I have had a deep passion for being a social worker. I have always appreciated the impact the field has on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, especially in its ability to instill positivity into a discouraged personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. I have high hopes that this is the best decision I am making in my life because I feel I have a position in touching the lives of others. I anticipate realizing my dreams in having a fulfilling life experience, especially when I am through with my academic journey. Also,Read MorePersonal Journal: Past Experiences Shaping Future Career and Life1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Understanding the impact of past experiences, the resulting feelings and beliefs and the resulting impact on how individuals view the world effects the way individuals in a social work perspective approach practice (Chenoweth Mcauliffe, 2005). Gambrill (2005) argues about the importance of self-knowledge in understanding an individuals own strengths and limitations, while Thompson (2000) expanded on this idea including understanding how the use of self impacts on theory and knowledge. 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I always knew the profession, I chose would primarily be focused on helping others. I thought about going to culinary arts school. However, I kept hearing the Lord lead me to social work, I was sure that helping young people has always been my calling. Social sp ecialists don t just enable individuals to utilize their assets and insight to individuals